Organizational Psychology in Cross-Cultural Perspective

By Colin P. Silverthorne | Go to book overview

4

Organizational and
National Culture

Organizational or corporate culture is intended to represent a common perception held by all members of the organization. It emphasizes the relational and process aspects of the organization. These include power and authority relationships, coping with uncertainty and risk taking, loyalty and commitment, motivation, control and discipline, coordination and integration, communication, consultation, and participation (Tayeb, 1994). This does not mean, however, that there cannot be subcultures within any given organizational culture. In fact, most large organizations have a dominant culture and numerous sets of subcultures (Sackmann, 1992). There is also some evidence that there may be only a limited level of within-industry variation among organizations. Companies that conduct the same type of business will probably have similar standards and constraints (Gordon, 1991).

Organizational culture can be summarized as having seven primary characteristics: innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, and stability (e.g., Chatman and Jehn, 1994). Each of these characteristics exists in every organization, on a continuum from high to low. Where the organization lies on each of these dimensions creates a complete model that provides the form and shape of the organization's culture.

It has been suggested that organizational culture is implicitly an American concept reflecting American values and that looking at or measuring organizational culture in other countries is therefore a waste of time, since this would make organizational culture an invalid concept when looking at global organizations. However, research into organizations across cultures has found that there are similarities between organizations operating in different cultural and societal settings (Lammers and

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Organizational Psychology in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • 2: Foundations of Organizations and Culture 7
  • 3: Culture and Organizations 24
  • 4: Organizational and National Culture 41
  • 5: Leadership in Organizations 57
  • 6: Leadership in Other Cultures 75
  • 7: Work Motivation 98
  • 8: Managerial Values and Skills 121
  • 9: The Impact of Cultural Values on Problem Solving, Teams, Gender, Stress, and Ethics 152
  • 10: Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment 171
  • 11: Conflict and Power 193
  • 12: Communication and Negotiation 217
  • 13: Personnel Psychology and Human Resource Management 235
  • 14: Some Final Thoughts 255
  • References 265
  • Name Index 321
  • Subject Index 337
  • About the Author 343
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