NEW APPROACHES AND NEW IDEAS
As in other countries in black Africa the economic crisis in Tanzania resulted in major problems in the education and health sectors. Due to the size of the debt and the programme for structural adjustment, the government was increasingly unable to offer adequate education and sufficient medical care.1 The endemic mismanagement and growing corruption, too, contributed to a qualitative as well as a quantitative reduction in services. The hospitals lacked medicines, the buildings were crumbling and the depreciation of the Tanzanian Shilling led to a budget deficit.2 The nurses at the Muhimbili Medical Centre in Dar es Salaam went on strike because of low wages. The state support of schools was also reduced: the proportion of the budget which was allocated to education was still around 12% in 1981/82, but from 1985/86 it was only approximately 6%.3 A. Masumba, headmaster of St. Paul s Secondary School, described the practical impact of these cuts in Liuli 1992:
Some of our schools have no rooms, no equipment. Here we have a
room, but it is not equipped. There are problems because of our
economy—it is going down and down. […] We don't have qualified
teachers. The cost of living is becoming more and more expensive. Re-
cently, there was a strike in a hospital. Imagine a doctor on strike: the
patient is dying, and the doctor says: “Never mind.” That is the point
where we have reached—also in education.4
As the Tanzanian state withdrew from those areas in which it had previously taken over responsibilty, the importance of non-governmental organisations grew again.5 New models of cooperation were tested; thus the government of the German Federal Republic granted
1 H. Hiß, Tansania: Kooperation Staal/Kirche bei der Ftirderung sozialer Dienste (Bildungs-
und Gesundheitswesen), (unpublished paper, eze Bonn, 15. 10. 1991).
2 C. Donner-Reichk, Auswirkungen der Verschuldungskrise auf the Projektfo'rderung der AG
KED, (unpublished paper, eze Bonn, 1989), pp. 6, 7.
3 L. Buchert, Education in the Development of Tanzania 1919–1990 (London, 1994), p.
4 A. Masumba (Headmaster, St. Paul's Secondary School, Liuli), Interview, Liuli,
3. 10. 1992.
5 This development can also be observed in other African states: cf. J.E.
Nyangoro, The Receding Role of the State and the Emerging Role of NGOs in African Develop-
ment, unpublished manuscript (AACC, Nairobi, 1993).