THE LIMITS OF GLOBALIZATION
LOCAL IDENTITY AND CEJLLEGE SPDRTS'
UNIQUELY AMERICAN SYMBIDSIS DF ACADEMICS
Much of this book centers on comparisons between Europe and the United States as, arguably, the most important players in the two globalization eras that comprise the framework of our study. America and Europe are quite similar to each other, yet also different.1 One difference pertains to a historical phenomenon that has puzzled so many European observers of America: why the United States constitutes the only advanced industrial democracy with no large-scale socialist and/or social democratic and/or communist parties and movements co-defining its politics, society, economy, and culture from the onset of industrialization. As Werner Sombart asks, Why there is no socialism in the United States?2 Markovits then extended the Sombartian question to the world of soccer, asking why the United States, that most sports-obsessed of all societies, never had soccer develop as its main sports language as did so many countries in the world.3 Of course, socialist, social democratic, and communist parties have indeed
1 Of course these differences pale when both—or either—of these two continents is com-
pared to the rest of the world. Viewed on a global scale, the gaps between Europe and Amer-
ica comprise a wonderful example of what Freud so presciently called the narcissism of small
2 Werner Sombart, Why Is There No Socialism in the United States? (White Plains, NY: In-
ternational Arts and Sciences Press, 1976).
3 Andrei S. Markovits “The Other 'American Exceptionalism': Why Is There No Soccer in
the United States?,” International Journal for the History of Sports 7 (2), Fall 1990, pp. 230–64.