The Governmental System of Peru

By Graham H. Stuart; Carnegie Institution of Washington | Go to book overview

CHAPTER III. THE EXECUTIVE POWER.

Lord Bryce, in his observations on South America, divides all the republics into three classes of states:

The first consists of those in which republican institutions, purporting to exist legally, are a mere farce, the government being in fact a military despotism, more or less oppressive and corrupt, according to the character of the ruler, but carried on for the benefit of the executive and his friends. The second includes countries where there is a legislature which imposes some restraint upon the executive, and in which there is enough public opinion to influence the conduct of both legislature and executive. In these states the rulers, though not scrupulous in their methods of grasping power, recognize some responsibility to the citizens and avoid open violence or gross injustice. The third class are real republics, in which authority has been obtained under constitutional forms, not by armed force, and where the machinery of government works with regularity and reasonable fairness, laws are passed by elected bodies under no executive coercion, and both administrative and judicial work goes on in a duly legal way.1

Unfortunately, the eminent English writer in his illustrations classifies under these three groups only the outstanding examples, and Peru is not among them. However, the task would not be a very difficult one, although perhaps a rather delicate one for a foreigner. But we are spared the decision, for an eminent Peruvian publicist, quoting this same classification of Lord Bryce, declares that Peru unfortunately can not be placed in the third group.2 But what is more germane to our purpose, the same Peruvian writer gives as the reason for the lack of a real republican government in Peru the excessive powers wielded by the executive, the "presidential absolutism," as he calls it.

Whether we consider Peru throughout the historical development of the republic, or whether we consider the actual government as it functions today, it must be conceded that for all practical purposes the terms government and president are almost synonymous. Until 1872, Peru was ruled by military presidents, and the great names among them, Gamarra, Salaverry, Santa Cruz, Vivanco, Castilla, were military dictators--men who, as García Calderón naïvely remarks, "wished absolute power in order to make possible the future education in liberty." Even Manuel Pardo, Peru's first civilian president, a reformer who insisted upon governing by constitutional means, carried out his program of reforms in the same vigorous

____________________
1
James Bryce, South America, Observations and Impressions ( N. Y., 1916), p. 541.
2
V. A. Belaunde, La Crisis Presente, Revista Universitaria, 1914, vol. I, p. 406.

-36-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Governmental System of Peru
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 158

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.