The Governmental System of Peru

By Graham H. Stuart; Carnegie Institution of Washington | Go to book overview

APPENDIX. CONSTITUTION OF 1920 OF THE REPUBLIC OF PERU.

TITLE I. THE NATION AND THE STATE.
ARTICLE 1. The Peruvian nation is the political association of all Peruvians.
ARTICLE 2. The nation is free and independent and may not enter into any compact which is prejudicial to its independence Or integrity or in any manner affects its sovereignty.
ARTICLE 3. Sovereignty resides in the nation and its exercise is intrusted to the authorities established by this constitution.
ARTICLE 4. The objects of the state are to maintain the independence and integrity of the nation; to guarantee the liberty and rights of the inhabitants; to preserve public order; and to further the moral, intellectual, material, and economic progress of the country.
ARTICLE 5. The nation professes the Roman Catholic Apostolic religion, and the state protects it.

TITLE II. NATIONAL GUARANTIES.
ARTICLE 6. Neither hereditary offices nor privileges nor personal immunities shall be recognized in the republic.
ARTICLE 7. Taxation may not be imposed, modified, or discontinued, except by law and for a public purpose. Only a law may grant total or partial exemption from taxation and never on personal grounds.
ARTICLE 8. The income tax shall be progressive.
ARTICLE 9. Receipts and expenditures of the nation shall be determined by law. Whoever authorizes an illegal exaction or expenditure shall be held responsible. He who executes such order is also responsible unless he can prove his innocence. The government authorities are held responsible for the immediate publication of their accounts of expenditures and budgets including those of all subordinate sections and officials.
ARTICLE 10. The constitution guarantees the payment of the public debt. Every obligation of the state incurred according to law must be met.
ARTICLE 11. No bills of credit shall be emitted as legal tender except in case of war. The state alone may coin money.
ARTICLE 12. No person may receive more than one salary or emolument from the state, no matter what office or function he may perform. Salaries or emoluments paid by local governments or by societies dependent in any manner upon the government are included in this prohibition.
ARTICLE 13. All acts performed by persons usurping public powers or holding offices conferred without complying with the requirements established by the constitution and the laws are null and void.
ARTICLE 14. Whoever exercises any public office is directly and immediately responsible for the acts performed in the exercise of his functions. The law shall determine the manner of making this responsibility effective. The public solicitors are charged with exacting compliance with the provisions of this article.

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