Man of Straw
July 1914-May 1915
We cannot accept humanitarian morality, Tolstoyan morality, the morality of slaves.
We, in time of war, adopt the Socratic formula: be better than one's friends, be worse
than one's enemies.
Mussolini, Speech in Milan, 4 October 1922
One can say of Enrico Corradini that he appears at the beginning of the present century
as the prophet of an imminent new period… It was inevitable that the encounter of
1915 would be repeated in 1922.
Mussolini, Speech to the Senate, 15 December 1931
The Fascist State is a will to power and to government… Fascism is opposed to
Socialism… and analogously it is opposed to class syndicalism.
Mussolini, Dottrina del fascismo, 1932
He who has iron has bread; but when the iron is well tempered, he will also probably
Mussolini, Speech in Bologna, 25 October 1936.
At the time of the international diplomatic crisis of July 1914 Mussolini was the leading propagandist of the revolutionary wing of the PSI and, since December 1912, editor of Avanti!. Under his tutelage the paper's distribution had doubled to between sixty and seventy-five thousand daily, with some issues reaching 90,000 and even 100,000 copies (Farinelli, Paccagnini, Santambrogio, Villa, 1997: 239-40). In the same period, PSI membership had increased from 20,459 to 47,724, and with a decidedly anti-militarist programme the youth section, led by Amadeo Bordiga, stood at over 10,000 members (Tranfaglia, 1995: 10-11). Not surprisingly, therefore, with the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia known among the public, and with the war drums beating, Mussolini declared on 26 July that the Italian working class would give 'not a man, not a penny!' and that it would spill 'not one drop of blood' for a cause 'that has nothing to do with it'. He demanded