Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education

By Anne Brockbank; Ian McGill | Go to book overview
Save to active project

11
Facilitation in Practice:
Further Skills

In this chapter we explore the skills of facilitation enabling the formation of relationships within which reflective dialogue and critically reflective learning can take place. We established in Chapter 9 that such facilitation should include the core conditions of empathy, warmth and congruence, as well as aspects of all three domains of learning, so that knowing, acting and feeling are integrated through the process of reflection.

Our emphasis in this chapter is with the affective and action domains, so that emotional expression, empathy, conflict and congruent challenge are examined. The skills of questioning, immediacy, feedback and confrontation, are also described, as well as some techniques for dealing with the group dynamics which emerge in student groups.

Emotion, as we have seen, has not featured in the academic tradition. In introducing reflection to higher education we need to address the management of emotion because of its key role in reflective dialogue, doubleloop learning (see Chapter 3) and reflective learning.

The process of reflection begins with 'uncomfortable feelings and thoughts', discomfort or surprise, and moves on to analysis of these feelings and thoughts; leading to potentially new perspectives (Atkins and Murphy, 1993). To enable learning through reflection the learner needs to be in touch with those feelings, aware of their significance, and be able to: 'describe these verbally and/or in writing' (p. 1190).

We note the implicit devaluing of emotion in some interpretations of reflection, with traces still of the mind/body dualism discussed in Chapter 2, and we support the movement towards recognizing emotional and experiential knowledge as itself contributing to transformational learning (Michelson, 1995).

We have also seen that interpretations of reflection almost always present it as an isolated activity, undertaken by the learner inwardly, with only selfreport of the process through reflective documents and the like (Atkins and Murphy, 1993; Barnett, 1997; Harvey and Knight, 1996; Mezirow, 1990; Moon, 1998). We are suggesting that, while intrapersonal dialogue is

-251-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 369

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.