1. Robert Fogelson was one of the earliest scholars to write about this relationship between architectural design and ideologies of urbanism in Los Angeles. See chapter 7 of his now classic 1967 work, The Fragmented Metropolis (Berkeley, 1967). For a lucid social history of architecture in Los Angeles, also see Merry Ovnick, Los Angeles: End of the Rainbow (Los Angeles, 1994).
2. While Alejandra Marchevsky conducted the ethnographic research on Mexican immigrant welfare recipients that appears in this book, the analysis and writing was a collaborative process. The singular voice (“I”) appears in Alejandra's fieldnotes.
3. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, PL 104-193 (HR 3734), in Congressional Record, July 31, 1996.
4. Sharon Hays, Flat Broke with Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform(London, 2003), 8.
5. Institute for Women's Policy Research, Combining Work and Welfare: An Alternative Anti-Poverty Strategy (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women's Policy Research, January 1995). This study found that one out of four welfare recipients combine work and welfare. Even among those labeled “more welfare reliant” (those who worked at a paid job for less than 600 hours in a two-year period), the study found that 7.4 percent were working limited hours and receiving welfare, and another 23.4 percent were actively looking for work. Notably, the authors of the study concluded that this tactic of using AFDC as a wage supplement was the only feasible long-term route out of poverty for single-mothers in the low-wage labor market.
6. Prior to the passage of the PWRORA, there was a large body of research disputing the myth of the welfare queen. See the article in MS magazine, May/June 1995 issue, entitled “Welfare: Fact and Fiction,” for a succinct summary of these findings.
7. Hays, 11.
8. Children's Defense Fund (http://www.childrensdefense.org/pressreleases/040322.aspx).
9. The Census Bureau, by its own admission, undercounts undocumented im