66–70 C.E. The first Jewish war against Rome began in 66 C.E.Jerusalem fell in August 70. The resistance continued in wilderness regions until 73. The dates given here generally stand for the period in which the war was fought.
70 C.E. The date of the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
132–135 C.E. These are the generally accepted dates in which the second Jewish war against Rome was fought. Led by Bar Kokba, the war probably began in 132 and ended in 135.
Babylonian Talmud A systematic commentary and exegesis of thirtyseven of the sixty-three tractates of the Mishnah (see Mishnah), in which Jewish sages living in Babylonia explain the meaning of the Mishnah's rules.
Bar Kokba War The Second Jewish war against Rome. See 132–135 C.E.
Essenes A Jewish sect that lived by itself near the Dead Sea in the last centuries B.C.E. The sect stressed rules of purity and waited for a holy war to mark the end of time and the salvation of Israel.
gezerak shavah An argument constructed on the basis of the appearance of the same word or grammatical construction in two distinct phrases, in which case the rule governing the one applies also to the other.
haburah An association of especially pious Jews, in the early centuries C.E., who ate their meals in accord with the rules governing the priests' meals in the Temple.
Hasmonean Monarchs These are the Maccabees who rebelled against the Syrians in ca. 165 B.C.E. and who set up an independent Jewish state in the Land of Israel that lasted until ca. 50 B.C.E.
heqqesh An argument by analogy. Because of the presumed likeness of two distinct phrases, the same rule governing the one applied also to the other, as at gezerah shavah, given above.
hesed The Hebrew word understood in the times of the Mishnah and the Talmud to mean “lovingkindness.”