Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750

By Jonathan I. Israel | Go to book overview

22

LEENHOF AND THE
'UNIVERSAL PHILOSOPHICAL
RELIGION'

i. Frederik van Leenhof (1647–1713)

In 1710, crossing the Netherlands bound for England, the noted Frankfurt patrician bibliophile, Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach, stopped off in Zwolle to visit a 63-yearold preacher named Frederik van Leenhof (1647–1713), then about to be expelled from the Dutch Reformed ministry. Uffenbach admired Leenhof's collection of paintings but it was not for that he had interrupted his journey. He was motivated by curiosity to see the man who 'had made himself famous through the great controversy that arose over his book'.1 He was referring to Leenhof's Hemel op Aarde (Heaven on Earth) of 1703, which provoked an uproar about illicit ideas exceeded in scale only by the Bekker affair and unmatched for duration even by that commotion.

Leenhof is almost forgotten today, even in the Netherlands, and historians of the European Enlightenment rarely mention him. Yet there are excellent reasons for rescuing him from oblivion and paying attention to the massive disturbance he provoked. Fifteen years after Uffenbach's visit to Zwolle, Jacob Friedrich Reimann justly remarked that Leenhof generated nearly as much commotion as Bekker and, furthermore, that the outcome of the two episodes was not dissimilar.2 In fact, there can be no balanced account of the European Radical Enlightenment which does not take careful account of Leenhof and his 'universal philosophical religion'.

A Zeelander by origin, who studied theology in the 1660s, initially at Utrecht under Voetius, and then at Leiden under Cocceius, Leenhof began to be noticed in the Republic of Letters from the early 1680s when, as a still relatively young Reformed preacher at Zwolle, he emerged as a fervent Cartesio-Cocceian in the fight against Voetian fundamentalism.2 In 1684 he published a tract at Amsterdam, castigating the Frisian Reformed classis of Zevenwolden for their sweeping condemnation of

1 Uffenbach, Merckwürdige Reisen, ii, 368–70; Schröder, 'Spinozam', 165.

2 Reimann, Historia, 487–8; "Sewel", Twee-Maandelyke Uyttreksels 1704, 293; according to Vandenbossche
the scandal provoked was almost as great as that caused by the publication of Spinoza's TTP; see
Vandenbossche, Frederik van Leenhof, 4.

-406-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 810

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.