The Laws of Armed Conflicts: A Collection of Conventions, Resolutions, and Other Documents

By Dietrich Schindler; Jiri Toman | Go to book overview

No. 55
FINAL ACT OF THE DIPLOMATIC CONFERENCE
ON THE REAFFIRMATION AND DEVELOPMENT
OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW
APPLICABLE IN ARMED CONFLICTS

Signed at Geneva, 10 June 1977

INTRODUCTORY NOTE Soon after the adoption of the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 it became clear that additional rules would be necessary for the protection of the civilian population against the effects of hostilities. The Geneva Conventions are concerned only with persons in the power of a party to a conflict, the only exception being Part II (Articles 13–26) of the Fourth Geneva Convention (No. 52), which deals with the protection of the population against certain consequences of war.

In 1956, the ICRC, with the approval of the International Conference of the Red Cross, submitted to the governments the Draft Rules for the Limitation of the Dangers Incurred by the Civilian Population in Time of War (No. 30). The time was not ready, however, for their adoption as an international convention. It was only in the mid-1960s mat the interest in the law of armed conflicts awoke as a consequence of the conflicts in Vietnam, the Middle East, Nigeria and other parts of the world, later also in connection with the struggles against colonial and alien domination and racist regimes. In 1965, the International Conference of the Red Cross adopted a resolution urging the ICRC to pursue the development of international humanitarian law (No. 31). In 1968, the International Conference on Human Rights at Teheran, convened by the United Nations General Assembly, emphasized the need for additional humanitarian conventions (No. 32), and in the same year, the General Assembly supported this request (No. 33). In 1969, the International Conference of the Red Cross asked the ICRC to work out proposals for the completion of the humanitarian law and to convene government and other experts for consultation on such proposals.

On the basis of these and later resolutions, the ICRC convened two successive conferences of government experts in Geneva (24 May to 12 June 1971, and 3 May to 3 June 1972) in order to prepare two draft protocols additional to the Geneva Conventions, one on international armed conflicts, the other on non-international armed conflicts. In 1973, the ICRC published the two draft protocols and the Swiss Federal Council convened the Diplomatic Conference which held four sessions from 1974 to 1977. The dates of the sessions and the states represented at them are indicated in the Final Act. The two Protocols were adopted by consensus on 8 June 1977. The Final Act was adopted at the plenary meeting of the Conference on 9 June 1977 by 78 votes to one, with 12 abstentions. It was signed on 10 June 1977 by the representatives of 102 states and of 3 national liberation movements. The two Protocols were opened for signature on 12 December 1977.

The Final Act has no force of law.

AUTHENTIC TEXTS: Arabic, English, French, Russian and Spanish.

TEXT PUBLISHED IN: (The indications are given for the Final Act as well as for the two Protocols and resolutions.) Official Records of the Diplomatic Con

-699-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Laws of Armed Conflicts: A Collection of Conventions, Resolutions, and Other Documents
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 1496

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.