Teaching and Learning Strategies for the Thinking Classroom

By Alan Crawford; Wendy Saul et al. | Go to book overview

GLOSSARY

Academic Controversy. A cooperative activity for discussing issues on which there are divergent opinions.

Active Learning. An approach to learning that includes question-posing, inquiry, and selfdirected learning. It is the opposite of rote learning.

Advance organizer. An anticipation activity at the beginning of a lesson to frame the students' thinking about the topic and to raise their curiosity; it could be a short talk about the topic, a onesentence written summary of text to be read, or an organizing question.

Anticipation. The phase at the beginning of a lesson in which activities done to remind students of what they already know about a topic, encourage them to raise questions about the topic, and set purposes for their learning.

Assessment. The activity of finding out what students are learning and how they are learning it. Also, the activity of observing how teachers are teaching, and what the results of that teaching are. Assessment can be formative assessment when it looks at the effects of a lesson while that lesson is going on, or summative assessment when it is done at the conclusion of a lesson to see what the lesson achieved. Assessment con focus on content—that is, the concepts, facts, and attitudes that are learned—and on processes—the skills that students learn to perform.

Best Practices. Teaching methods whose effectiveness has been demonstrated through wide use, often including research.

Brainstorming. A technique of rapid, uncritical thinking. Brainstorming is used to get plenty of ideas out for discussion,. It is often followed by deliberative thinking.

Building Knowledge. In an active learning model, the phase toward the middle of a lesson in which students inquire into a topic and pursue answers to their questions.

Character Map. A graphic organizer often used as a consolidation activity; it allows readers to record and organize traits of characters for compare and contrast.

Community Agreements. A set of agreed-upon behavioral standards used to keep students' activity focused and productive when they work in cooperative groups.

Consolidation. In an active learning model, the phase toward the end of a lesson in which students reflect on what they learned, and interpret their new knowledge, critique it, apply it, debate it, and innovate upon it.

Cooperative learning. An approach to working in groups that makes students responsible for each other's learning, and each accountable for their own learning. “Collaborative learning” is a synonym for cooperative learning.

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