Music and the Emotions
Part Four is devoted to music. Chapters 10 and 11 are about musical expression, and Chs. 12 and 13 are about the arousal of emotions by music.
In Ch. 10 I show how in many ways song—more especially the Romantic lied—is the quintessential art of Romantic expression. For the past hundred years or so music theory has been dominated by a formalistic aesthetic that has tended to denigrate the importance of emotion in music. For the contemporary descendants of this line of thinking, expression in music is simply an appearance worn by music, much as the sad face of the St Bernard or basset-hound is an appearance that has nothing to do with the expression of any actual emotion the dog might be feeling. But in fact, contrary to what the doggy theory asserts, some Romantic music is an expression of emotion in the full Romantic sense I outlined in Ch. 9. In particular many Romantic lieder express the emotions of their dramatic protagonists. Music, like emotion, is a process, and so it is peculiarly well suited to express not only particular emotional states but also blends of emotion, conflicts between emotions, ambiguous emotions, and the way one emotion transforms into another. I illustrate these themes with a reading of Brahms's lied, 'Immer leiser wird mein Schlummer'.
In Ch. 11 I argue that in Romantic instrumental music it is often appropriate to posit a persona in the music, whether this is a persona