1. Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas (1938; reprint, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1966), 66.
2. Linda K. Kerber, Toward an Intellectual History of Women (Chapel Hill: Uni- versity of North Carolina Press, 1997), 12.
3. These essays later appeared as Radical Feminism, edited by Anne Koedt, Ellen Levine, and Anita Rapone (New York: Quadrangle, 1973).
4. Taking a noncredit course offered by Columbia University professor Seymour Melman on “The Peace Budget” deeply affected my political outlook and made me more receptive to the antiwar movement.
5. Estelle B. Freedman, “The New Woman: Changing Views of Women in the 1920s,” Journal of American History 61 (September 1974): 372–93.1 remain grateful to Professor John Garraty for recommending that I submit this seminar paper to the journal at a time when I knew nothing about publishing.
6.1 first developed my analysis in “Their Sisters' Keepers: An Historical Perspective on Female Correctional Institutions in America, 1870–1900,” Feminist Studies 2, no. 1 (1974): 77–95, and later published a revised version of my dissertation, Their Sisters' Keepers: Women's Prison Reform in America, 1830–1930 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981). The book manuscript won the 1978 Alice and Edith Hamilton publication prize in women's studies from the University of Michigan.
7. For example, Chandra Mohanty, “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses,” Feminist Review 30 (Autumn 1988): 61–85; Leila Rupp, Worlds of Women: The Makingofan International Women's Movement (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997); and Amrita Basu, ed., The Challenge of Local Feminisms: Women's Movements in Global Perspective (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995)-
8. See Estelle B. Freedman and Barrie Thorne, “Introduction to 'The Sexuality Debates,'” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 10, no. 1 (Autumn 1984): 102–5.
9. The colleagues in these two study groups who most influenced my thinking in- cluded Allan Bérubé, Amber Hollibaugh, Shelly Rosaldo, Gayle Rubin, Mary Ryan, Judy Stacey, Barrie Thorne, and, during his California stays, John D'Emilio.
10. The video, based on research by Allan Bérubé, is distributed through Women
Make Movies (