For her enthusiastic support and encouragement from the start, when it really mattered, I express my deepest gratitude to Martine Sambe in Dakar. Heartfelt thanks to Karen Gravelle for continual support and crucial assistance. Kessy Sambe in Paris, who helped with the research: merci.
I am particularly grateful to my son, Sény, whose loving support and understanding, smart comments, and daily encouragement have made this work so much easier.
All translations from French, Portuguese, and Spanish documents are from the author. For clarity, African names appear as they were spelled in primary sources and not as they would now be transcribed.