rRAAMA rā'ǝ-mǝ "Heb. ra‛mā" (1 Ch. 1:9); AV RAAMAH; RAAMAH "Heb. ra‛mā" (Gen. 10:7; 1 Ch. 1:9; Ezk. 27:22):
NEB also RAAMA. Son of Cush and father of Sheba
and Dedan (Gen. 10:7; 1 Ch. 1:9). In Ezk. 27:22 Raamah
is mentioned along with Sheba as a tribe or country whose
merchants brought spices, precious stones, and gold to
Tyre in exchange for the latter's merchandise. The location of Raamah is disputed. Based on the LXX rendering Rhegma, some have identified the place with the city
of that name mentioned by Ptolemy, located in east Arabia
on the Persian Gulf. (The LXX gamma often indicates ghayin "ģ", represented by ‛ayin in Hebrew.) A second
alternative, proposed by von Wissmann, associates the
name with Ragmat (rgmt), a city appearing in South Arabian inscriptions from the 5th-4th cents, B.C. (Répertoire d'epigraphie sémitique, §§ 3022, 3943). This was a central
town of the Nejran region in northern Yemen whose ruins
may be near Uhdud, S of Wâdî Nejran. The problem
with this identification is that South Arabic g does not
correspond to Heb. ‛ayin (either palatal or guttural), so
that the two names do not appear to be related. More
likely is a connection with Sabean rģm, located near
Ma‛în in southwest Arabia. Another possibility is that
Raamah was in northern Arabia, which appears to be the
location of two places named in association with Raama:
Dedan may be identified with el-‛Ula in northern Arabia,
and the people of Sheba were located in northern Arabia
according to eighth- and seventh-century B.C. Assyrian
sources (See also DEDAN; SABEANS).Bibliography.–J. A. Montgomery, Arabia and the Bible (1934),
pp. 39, 42; H. von Wissmann and M. Hofner, Beiträge zur historischen Geographie des vorislamischen Siidarabien(1953), pp.
9-11; W. F. Albright, “Dedan,” in Geschichte und AT (Festschrift
A. Alt; 1953), pp. 1-12; Encyclopedia Miqrait (1976), VII, s.v.D. A. DORSEYRAAM1AH rā-ǝ-mī'ǝ "Heb. ra‛amyâ– Yahweh has thundered' (?); Gk. B Naamia, A Rheelma". A leading Israelite
who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. 7:7).
The name appears as “Reelaiah” in Ezr. 2:2 and as Resaiah
in 1 Esd. 5:8. The correct spelling of the name is uncertain.RAAMSES rā-am'sēz (Ex. 1:11, AV, RSV). See RAMESES.RABBAH rab'ǝ.1. "Heb. rabbâ: LXX usually Rhabba or Rhabbath"
(Josh. 13:25; 2 S. 11:1: 12:27, 29; 1 Ch. 20:1; Jer. 49:3;
Ezk. 25:5: Am. 1:4); RABBAH OF THE AMMONITES
"Heb. rabbal benê ‛ammôn; LXX usually Rhabbath huiṓn Ammōn-'Rabbah of the sons of Ammon'" (Dt. 3:11;
2 S. 12:26; 17:27; Jer. 49:2; Ezk. 21:25); AV RABBAH
(RABBATH) OF THE CHILDREN OF AMMON; NEB
also AMMONITE CITY (TOWN) OF RABBAH, RABBATH AMMON. The capital of Ammon.
|I. Name and Identification|
|II. OT Period|
|III. Greco-Roman Period|
|IV. Archeological Investigations|
I. Name and Identification.–Rabbah in Hebrew means
“great” (fem.). Although it can be used attributively to
describe a town, e.g., Heb. ḥamaṯ rabbâ, “great Hamath”
(Am. 6:2), it is used substantively with regard to the capital
of the Ammonites and should most likely be taken as a
divine epithet, “the Lady,” in accordance with widespread
northwest Semitic practice. The city was evidently named
after the chief female deity of the Ammonite pantheon.
Rabbah was located on the same site as modern ‛Ammân
(see IV below). In the 3rd cent. B.C. the place was hellenized and named (Gk.) Philadelpheia after Ptolemy II
Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.), although Zenon, a Ptolemaic
agent, still referred to it in his official records as Rhabbatamana. Eusebius (Onom. 16.15; 24.1f.) knew the Semitic
name as simply (Gk.) Amman but was aware of its former
name, Rhabbath (146.6f.). Moslem writers all referred
to the town as 'Ammân (Ahamant in Crusader sources),
which is its name today.
II. OT Period.–The allusion in Dt. 3:11 to the iron bedstead of Og, Amorite king of Bashan, which was evidently
preserved as a trophy (dedicated to a temple?) at Rabbah
of the Ammonites, suggests some connection of the city
with the pre-Israelite (and pre-Ammonite?) culture of the
2nd millennium B.C. As capital of the Ammonite territory
Rabbah controlled a considerable surrounding area, whose
boundaries were recognized by the Israelites (cf. Josh.
13:25, where the proper rendering should be “Aroer, which
is in front of "facing" Rabbah,” contra RSV “east of”).
The history of the city can be deduced to some degree
from what is known about the people of AMMON.
If the text of 2 S. 10:6-8 is taken alone, it appears
that the first open clash between David's forces and the
Ammonite-Aramean alliance took place near the Ammonite capital (cf. v. 3), but v. 8 with its reference to a
city gate is quite abrupt. 1 Ch. 19:7b supplies the additional detail that the allies encamped initially near Medeba;
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.
Contributors: Geoffrey W. Bromiley - Editor, Everett E. Harrison - Editor, Roland K. Harrison - Editor, William Sanford Lasor - Editor, Gerald H. Wilson - Editor, Edgar W. Smith Jr. - Editor.
Publisher: W.B. Eerdmans.
Place of publication: Grand Rapids, MI.
Publication year: 1979.
Page number: 27.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may
not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.