The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Vol. 4

By Geoffrey W. Bromiley; Everett E. Harrison et al. | Go to book overview
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ZAANAIM zā-ə-nāUəm (Jgs. 4:11, AV). SeeZAANANNIM.

ZAANAN zāUə-nan "Heb. ṣa('anān; Gk. Sennaar" (Mic. 1:11). A fortress city mentioned only in Micah's lament mourning the Assyrian army's systematic seizure of Judah's main lines of defence in the Shephelah. (see LBHG "2nd ed. 1979", p. 392). It has often been identified with Zenan (Heb. enān) of Josh. 15:37, since both are in the Shephelah and named along with Lachish. On the basis of the Arabic version reading (el-'Araq), F.-M. Abel located it at 'Arâq el-Kharab (GP, II, 455); but this identification has not been generally accepted.


ZAANANNIM zā-ə-nan-im, OAK IN "Heb. K('ēlōn beṣa'nnayimor baṣ'annîm, Q ('ēlôn beṣa'anannîm"; AV ALLON TO ZAANANNIM (Josh. 19:33), PLAIN OF ZAANAIM (Jgs. 4:11); NEB ELON-BEZAANANNIM. A place on the southern border of Naphtali in the vicinity of the Jabneel valley (Josh. 19:33); possibly the same as the site of Heber the Kenite's encampment near Kedesh (Jgs. 4:11).

Textual problems make the reading difficult. The RSV reads Heb. ('ēlôn as a noun (“oak”) and be as a preposition (“in”), but ('ēlôn could also be read either as a place name in its own right (cf. AV “Allon”) or as a construct, in which case be would be read as part of the name Bezaanannim (cf. LXX B Besemiim, A Besenanim in Josh. 19:33; in Jgs. 4:11 the LXX translates pleonektoúntōn"B" or anapauoménōn "A", assuming the Hebrew root to be bṣ'), or as the first element of a compound name (so NEB). The absence of the definite article before ('ēlôn favors reading “oak of Bezaanannim” or “Elon-bezaanannim.” The place may have been a cultic center (see B. Mazar, JNES, 24 "1965", 297-303; LBHG "rev. ed. 1979", p. 227).

The exact location of the site is unknown; the problem is complicated by uncertainty about the identification of Kedesh in Jgs. 4:11. Some have identified Bezaanannim with Leijun, about 4 km. (2½ mi.) N of Taanach, between Megiddo and Tell Abû Qedeis (seeKEDESH 2). Others have argued for an identification with Khirbet Bessûm on the plateau W of the Sea of Galilee, about 5 km. (3 mi.) NE of Tabor, not far from Khirbet Qedish. Based on a derivation of the name ṣa'anannîm from the root ṣ'n (“pack up”; thus “of the caravanners”), and a tentative identification of the other places mentioned in Josh. 19:33, still others have favored an identification with Khan et-Tujjar, a caravan station on the road from Beth-shan to Damascus, located about 6.5 km. (4 mi.) SE of Adam (Khirbet Dâmiyeh).

Bibliography.–GP, II, 64, 239; GTTOT §§ 333f., 554; HGHL, pp.
394, 395 n.l.


ZAAVAN zāUə-van "Heb. za'awān < zāwa –'tremble'(?)"; AV also ZAVAN; NEB ZAVAN. Son of Ezer; a Horite clan chief who descended from Seir (Gen. 36:27; 1 Ch. 1:42).

ZAB, GREATER AND LESSER zāb "Assyr. zabu šupalu (Lower Zab) and zabu elu (Upper Zab); Lat. Lycus and Absithris (Pliny Nat. hist. vi.30); Gk. Lykos and Kapros (Strabo Geog. xvi.1.4)". Two tributaries of the TIGRIS River which, flowing from the east, join it in upper Mesopotamia. The Greater (Upper) Zab rises in the snowy Zagros mountains along the Turkish-Iranian border midway between Lake Van and Lake Urmiah. Its 425 km. (265 mi.) journey through southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq passes first through rugged, forested mountain canyons and past occasional waterfalls, then through wide, fertile river valleys. It meets the Tigris near Calah (ancient Nimrud) about 32 km. (20 mi.) S of Nineveh (modern Mosul). The Lesser (Lower) Zab originates in


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