Religious Experience Reconsidered: A Building Block Approach to the Study of Religion and Other Special Things

By Ann Taves | Go to book overview

Glossary

Ascription — the assignment of a quality or characteristic to some thing.

Ascriptions, simple — ascriptions in which a single thing or event is characterized.

Ascriptions, composite — a set of two or more interlocked ascriptions.

Attributions — the commonsense causal explanations that people offer for why things happen as they do.

Attribution theory — a collection of theories developed by psychologists to explain the commonsense causal explanations that people offer for why things happen as they do.

Consciousness, transitive — consciousness of something.

Consciousness, intransitive — what we are when we are awake, a precondition of consciousness.

Consciousness, first-order — also known as primary or core consciousness, includes sensory awareness, attention, perceptions, memory, emotion, and action. It is present in nonhuman animals and prelinguistic humans and forms the basis for all higher forms of consciousness.

Consciousness, higher-order — includes levels of consciousness beyond first-order consciousness, variously referred to as “conscious awareness,” “awareness of awareness,” or “meta-awareness.” The highest level of consciousness, which is most likely limited to humans, depends upon language and the more complex mental functions associated with it.

Deeming — an umbrella term that encompasses processes of ascription and attribution.

Embodiment — the subjective experience of having and using a body. In cognitive science and the philosophy of mind, it signals an approach that emphasizes the role that the body plays in shaping the mind.

Etic — a term used by anthropologists to refer to the language and perspectives of those whom scholars are studying.

Emic — a term used by anthropologists to refer to language and perspectives of scholars.

Folk psychology — the set of basic, cross-culturally stable assumptions that we use to predict, explain, or understand the everyday actions of others in terms of the mental states we presume lie behind them.

Formations, simple — a simple ascription plus any beliefs and practices associated with it.

Formations, composite — a composite ascription plus the beliefs and practices associated with it.

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