Globalization and Basque Nationalism
Globalization, it is argued, triggers the rise of new forms of nationalism not only in post-communist countries but also in the Western world. It is also arguably involved in the revival and reinvigoration of historic nationalisms of stateless nations in Europe and elsewhere. One analysis counts some 35 regions or ethnic groups that are seeking a higher degree of autonomy or secession in the OECD area.1 These include movements in Scotland, Wales, Northern Italy, Quebec, Spain (the Basque Country and Catalonia), Belgium, and others. These movements, although part of ongoing international conflicts for a long time, have arguably become more active and visible in the context of globalization.2 Thus for Mary Kaldor and Diego Muro the growth of militant nationalist and religious groups can be explained in terms of the insecurities generated by globalization as well as disillusion with the secular ideologies of the state.3 An alternative view on the relationship between nationalist movements and globalization sees the reinvigoration process in terms of new opportunities opening up for regional and ethnic groups in the global world. Therefore, according to Georg Sorenson, with the growth of supranational institutions a new level “above” the nations has been emerging, which can be seen as a new
1 Cited in Georg Sorensen (2004) The Transformation of the State: Beyond
the Myth of Retreat, New York: Palgrave, p. 93.
2 Ibid., p. 94.
3 Mary Kaldor and Diego Muro (2003) “Religious and Nationalist Militant
Groups” in Global Civil Society, Oxford University Press, pp. 182–3. This
article describes BNLM (Basque National Liberation Movement, which
includes the terrorist group ETA) as one of those militant nationalist groups
that have been reinvigorated by the processes of globalization.