the Social Pact
Cárdenas's Mexico was a revolutionary society. A people in arms defended the ejido and the school, the nationalized oil and railways, the collective farms. Cárdenas' government protested against Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia, supported the Republican cause against Franco more than any other country, accepted refugees when the Spanish Republic fell, stood up for the suffering Jews at Geneva, condemned the Japanese invasion of China, was almost alone in rejecting Hitler's snatch of Austria, and took in the revolutionary Trotsky fleeing from Stalin's terror.
In 1940 Cárdenas left the Chair of el Presidente; he and his disciples took lesser posts in the ruling party. Although they remained an important current in the reorganized Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM), the radical tide of the Revolution was ebbing: the workers with doubled wages became politically lazy; the peasants with corn patches began to yawn. The masses had gotten something at last; on the city block and in the rural village they relaxed. For the Revolution to gallop toward socialism they needed leadership, but most of the bureaucrat-professionals had had enough of radicalism—they wanted social peace. The bureaucrat-professionals decided to tilt the social pact of the Revolution away from workers and peasants, and toward business interests. As administrators of the social pact they hoped to restore the social balance. They aimed to hold the business class in a political coalition with workers, peasants, and oficinistas. They also thought to