Capital Punishment and Latino Offenders: Racial and Ethnic Differences in Death Sentences

By Martin G. Urbina | Go to book overview

Appendix

THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONS
The following are some of Blalock's (1967:204–220) theoretical propositions concerning various issues, some of which are central to the current study:
1. Resources depend primarily on the motivation and goals of the persons over whom power is being exercised, whereas mobilization is a function of the goals and expectations of the persons exercising the power. This means that classifications of resources should be in terms of the [motive base] of those over whom power is being exercised.
2. To the extent that one possesses those resources necessary for obtaining his most important goals he becomes less subject to control by others.
3. If resources for a given goal are unavailable or insufficient, then one can gain greater independence from, as well as control over, others by renouncing the goal.
4. Whenever A can limit B's access to a given goal, a certain restriction is placed on B's power over A with respect to other goals. Therefore, although power is always relative to particular goals, power in any one area depends on the availability of resources for achieving other goals. This means that ordinarily power is easily generalized, and that power in one area can be used to beget power in another.
5. In general, the greater the resources, the larger is the number of alternative means or paths that are ordinarily open for the achievement of objectives.
6. According to the flexibility principle, the possession of resources, by permitting greater flexibility of choice, therefore reduces the probability that the objective or goal in question will dominate choice behavior. This suggests that in many situations persons who are in the best position to discriminate (e.g., persons who have secure high statuses) may be less motivated to do so because of other available alternatives.
7. Persons who lack the resources to achieve important objectives are more likely than those who do possess these resources to develop strong personality needs to dominate or control the behavior of other individuals.
8. To the degree that the development of competitive resources requires special adaptive mechanisms and a distinctive minority subculture, minorities that possess effective competitive resources are likely to become [perpetual minorities] if the economy is such that the minority occupies a special [niche] in the economic structure (e.g., a merchant class), if the minority's subculture is highly ethnocentric, with strong beliefs in its own superiority (e.g., the chose people), and if the minority develops a strong internal organization, with a leadership dedicated to the perpetuation of endogamy and a distinctive subculture.
9. The wider the range of a man's alternative means, the more difficult it is to control his behavior through the use of the punishment power alone.
10. Minority (or dominant-group) mobilization is a multiplicative function of the strength of one's goals and the perceived probability of achieving those goals.

-239-

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Capital Punishment and Latino Offenders: Racial and Ethnic Differences in Death Sentences
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Criminal Justice - Recent Scholarship i
  • Title Page iii
  • Dedication v
  • Table of Contents vii
  • List of Tables ix
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Chapter1 - Introduction 1
  • Chapter 2 - Theories of Race and Ethnic Differences in Punishment and Sentencing 9
  • Chapter3 - Death Sentencing and Death Sentence Outcomes: Review of Prior Empirical Studies 41
  • Chapter 4 - History of U.S. Race and Ethnic Relations 93
  • Chapter 5 - The Present Study 153
  • Chapter 6 - Latinos Executed in the United States Between 1975 and 1995 181
  • Chapter 7 - Findings 195
  • Chapter 8 - Conclusion 229
  • Appendix 239
  • Endnotes 243
  • References 257
  • Index 277
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