1. Robert Jensen, ed., Devastation/Resurrection: The South Bronx (New York: Bronx Museum of the Arts, 1979), 13; Jill Jonnes, South Bronx Rising: The Rise, Fall, and Resurrection of an American City (New York: Fordham University Press, 2002), 311–23, 333–36; Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population: 1950, New York, New York (Washington, DC, 1952); Welfare and Health Council of New York City, Population of Puerto Rican Birth or Parentage, New York City: 1950 (New York, 1952); Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Population and Housing: 1960 (Washington, DC, 1962); New York City Department of City Planning, Citywide and Borough Popufotion, 1990 & 2000, New York City government Web site,

2. Quotes are from Craig Horowitz, “A South Bronx Renaissance,” New York, 21 November 1994, 54; Borough President of the Bronx, The 2000 State of the Borough Report (New York, 2000), 1. Fernando Ferrer quoted in Barbara Stewart, “The Bronx: An All-America City, Thonx,” New York Times, 19 November 1997.

3. For examples of these interpretations see Jonnes, South Bronx Rising, Thomas J. Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban CrisL.: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996); Herbert Meyer, “How Government Helped Ruin the South Bronx,” Fortune, Nov. 1975, 140–54. The widespread black/white conflict that Sugrue described in Detroit did not occur in the Bronx.

4. Roy Lubove, “The Urbanization Process: An Approach to Historical Research,” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 33 (Jan. 1967): 34.

5. The Bronx received its name from the Bronx River, which had earlier been named for the first European settler in lower Westchester, the Swedish-born Jonas Bronk. Stephen Jenkins, The Story of The Bronx: From the Purchase Made by the Dutch From the Indians in 1639 to the Present Day (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1912), 7–10, 26, 366 (hereafter cited as Jenkins, The Bronx); Lloyd Ultan, “1776–1940, The Story of The South Bronx,” in Jensen, Devastation/Resurrection, 14–36.


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