Biological Weapons: From the Invention of State-Sponsored Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism

By Jeanne Guillemin | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 5

AIMING FOR NUCLEAR SCALE:
The Cold War and the US Biological Warfare Program

The American officers who interviewed Japanese biological warfare scientists in 1947 quickly realized that US achievements were technically superior to those of Gen. Ishii Shiro's program. By the end of World War II, the American, British, and Canadian programs had learned much about airborne infection and about a diversity of biological agents, had improved defenses against some of them, and had come close to mass production of an anthrax bomb.1 The atomic bomb and the Cold War signaled a momentous change in the US biological weapons program. The vision of the scale of intentionally spreading disease expanded to strategic attacks on a par with the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and with the Soviet Union and its allies as potential targets. For more than twenty years after the end of World War II, advocates of germ weapons struggled toward the goal of strategic potential and sought to convince the armed forces, especially the Air Force and Navy, that these new weapons should be assimilated. Few in the US government knew about this struggle for expanded offensive capacity. Within the program, research intensified, production capacity increased, and simulations of disease attacks on civilians grew larger and more elaborate until they verged on reality.

During the time the US postwar biological weapons program was being secretly ratcheted up to approximate nuclear scale, members of the American and international public, including scientists, were openly debating the dangers of nuclear weapons. Eventually, especially during the 1960s, the US chemical weapons program and the dangers it posed to civilians and the environment became a source of great contention. Yet, after just a brief flurry of

-92-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Biological Weapons: From the Invention of State-Sponsored Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 260

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.