1. I was never allowed to observe the private conversations that took place before the men came to an Expell meeting. My information about these conversations is derived entirely from interview data.
1. Only one woman in this study was divorced, but her husband, in addition to his homosexual infidelities, stole money from her to fund his exploits.
2. Conservative Christian beliefs about gender and gendered relationships cannot simply be categorized as belief in a traditional family structure in which men are leaders/providers and women are helpers/caretakers (Stacey and Gerard 1990; Bartkowski 1997, 2001). Certainly, some conservative Christian commentators (Dobson 1991; Weber 1993) do see gender differences—men as rational and initiating and women as emotional and accepting—as divinely fixed, making men and women innately and irreversibly suited to a traditional patriarchal family structure. Others, however, contest such beliefs, asserting that men and women are quite alike and that all are required to exude the same Christian values (Scanzoni and Hardesty 1992; Gabriel 1993). While all Christians must submit to God, there is debate over whether women should submit to God through their husbands or with their husbands.
1. Just as Promise Keepers emerged as a backlash to feminism, Exodus originated as part of a backlash against gay liberation. Exodus emerged approximately eight years after MCC (and the gay liberation movement) originated, at a time when gay rights activists had succeeded in making homosexuality increasingly visible and had gotten several pieces of gay rights legislation