Erotic Beasts and Social Monsters: Shakespeare, Jonson, and Comic Androgyny

By Grace Tiffany | Go to book overview
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Notes to the Introduction

1. See, for example, Ann Jones and Peter Stallybrass's “Fetishizing Gender: Constructing the Hermaphrodite in Renaissance Europe,” in Body Guards, ed. Julia Epstein and Kristina Straub (New York: Routledge, 1991), pp. 80–111, as well as Robert Kimbrough's discussion of the two words in “Androgyny Seen through Shakespeare's Disguise,” Shakespeare Quarterly 33 (1982): 21 n. 8. My discussion of the symbolic literary use of androgyny inclines toward Kimbrough's (with the exception of his above-referenced footnote, which summarizes the Renaissance medical implications of the words “androgyny” and “hermaphrodism”). But my discussion differs fundamentally in approach from that of Jones and Stallybrass, who focus on the effects of classical and Renaissance biological (and literary) texts on definitions of physical “maleness” and “femaleness.” My concern, unlike theirs, is not with androgyny/hermaphrodism as a biological category, but as an artificial symbol of a heterosexual relationship or of a psychological condition.

2. Phyllis Rackin, “Androgyny, Mimesis, and the Marriage of the Boy Heroine on the Renaissance Stage,” in Speaking of Gender, ed. Elaine Showalter (New York: Routledge, 1989), p. 113.

3. See Ken Ringle, “Into the Heart—and Soul—of Africa: Laurens van der Post's Spiritual Quest as Writer, Hunter, Soldier & Humanist,” The Washington Post, 26 June 1993. In a section entitled “The Fall of Eros” in his recent Love and Friendship (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), the late Allan Bloom also defines the Greeks' expansive notion of eros.

4. Cynthia Secor, quoted in Kimbrough, “Androgyny Seen,” p. 19.

5. Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, ed. A. C. Hamilton (New York: Longman, 1977). Other references to The Faerie Queene are also to this edition.

6. The Orphic Hymns: Text, Translation, and Notes, trans, and ed. Apostolos N. Athanassakis (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1977). All references to the hymns are to this edition.

7. Marjorie Garber, Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety (New York: Routledge, 1992).

8. Alfred Harbage, for example, speaks of “two distinct theatrical traditions in England. romantic, idealistic, positive, and often patriotic and religious drama,” and “satirical comedy.” Quoted in R. A. Foakes, “The Profession of Playwright,” in Modern Shakespearean Criticism, ed. Alvin B. Kernan (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970), p. 145 n. 1.

9. The seminal work clarifying this likeness is Jonas Barish's Anti-theatrical Prejudice(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981), especially chapters 4 and 5.


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Erotic Beasts and Social Monsters: Shakespeare, Jonson, and Comic Androgyny


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