Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

4
REINFORCING EFFORT AND PROVIDING RECOGNITION
IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
SUMMARIZING AND NOTE TAKING
REINFORCING EFFORT AND PROVIDING RECOGNITION
HOMEWORK AND PRACTICE
NONLINGUISTIC REPRESENTATIONS
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
SETTING OBJECTIVES AND PROVIDING FEEDBACK
GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES
CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCE ORGANIZERS

Ian MacIntosh was a new student at Prairie Elementary School. It did not
take him long to discover that even though the teachers and students
seemed nice enough, the school was considered to be what they called a
[low-performing school.] They had low scores on the state tests, and every-
one knew it because the results were published in the local newspaper. The
test was given soon after Ian arrived and, like other students, he just wanted
to get through it.

The next year, the school got a new principal, Ms. Heichman. Things
began to change. Ian's teachers started telling stories of famous people who
achieved their goals because they believed that if they tried hard enough,
they could do anything. Even students were asked to give examples, and Ian
told the story of his grandfather's belief that he could make his farm suc-
cessful. Ian's teachers started giving students [E for Effort] certificates. Ian
earned two in one week. It made him feel more confident and made him
want to do better. His classmates all seemed a bit more confident, too, es-
pecially when the whole class received the principal's [E for Effort] award
because the class beat their own previous class average on math quizzes,
twice in one month. He was proud when the banner went up over the
door—and he enjoyed the ice cream the room mothers had promised
them if they hit their goal.

The best news came when the state test scores returned. The school was
in the headlines as the school that had improved the most. Ian knew he and
his schoolmates still had a long way to go, but he believed they could do it.

The approach used by Ian's principal exemplifies the third category of general instructional strategies. Unlike the others, it does not deal directly with enhancing or engaging the cognitive skills of students. Rather, this set of instructional techniques addresses students' atti-

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