Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

6
NONLINGUISTIC
REPRESENTATIONS
IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
SUMMARIZING AND NOTE TAKING
REINFORCING EFFORT AND PROVIDING RECOGNITION
HOMEWORK AND PRACTICE
NONLINGUISTIC REPRESENTATIONS
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
SETTING OBJECTIVES AND PROVIDING FEEDBACK
GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES
CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCE ORGANIZERS

Mrs. Maly asked her 5th graders to put their heads down on their desks and
close their eyes. She started reading aloud from the book, A Street Through
Time,
by Anne Millard. The book describes an old street that becomes in-
habited by nomadic hunter-gatherers. Throughout the book, the period in
which the story takes place keeps changing, as do the demands placed on
the people living in the [street through time.] As she read the first couple
of pages, she described what she saw [in her mind.] She asked her students
to [see in their mind] what they were hearing her say. She also told students
that they could interrupt her reading to ask questions (e.g., What does the
roof on the hut look like? Did the people hurt when they got the plague?)
When she finished reading the story, Mrs. Maly asked students to work in-
dependently drawing pictures of their [favorite scenes] from the images
they had created in their minds.

The next day, students shared and explained their pictures in small
groups.When they finished, each group drew a semantic web to depict the
information from the story they thought was the most important. Mrs. Maly
instructed students to use the first layer of the web to choose general
terms that were common to all time periods described in the story (e.g.,
transportation, food, shelter, and work).The next layer of the web was de-
voted to examples and illustrations of the common terms during specific
eras depicted in the book.

Mrs. Maly has made good use of a powerful aspect of learning— generating mental pictures to go along with information, as well as creating graphic representations for that information.

-72-

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