Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview
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12
USING THE NINE CATEGORIES IN INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING
If teachers are familiar with the research and practice presented in Chapters 2 through 11, this knowledge will likely influence the way they plan for instruction. As a refresher, here's a list of the nine categories of strategies that have a strong effect on student achievement:
Identifying similarities and differences.
Summarizing and note taking.
Reinforcing effort and providing recognition.
Homework and practice.
Nonlinguistic representations.
Cooperative learning.
Setting objectives and providing feedback.
Generating and testing hypotheses.
Questions, cues, and advance organizers.
To plan with the intent of systematically using the strategies presented in this book, teachers might think about unit planning as involving the following three phases:
At the beginning of a unit, include strategies for setting learning goals.
During a unit, include strategies
for monitoring progress toward learning goals.
for introducing new knowledge.
for practicing, reviewing, and applying knowledge.
At the end of a unit, include strategies for helping students determine how well they have achieved their goals.

In this chapter, we have provided an extended example of unit planning following this model in the context of a hypothetical unit on weather.

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