Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

12
USING THE NINE CATEGORIES IN INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING
If teachers are familiar with the research and practice presented in Chapters 2 through 11, this knowledge will likely influence the way they plan for instruction. As a refresher, here's a list of the nine categories of strategies that have a strong effect on student achievement:
Identifying similarities and differences.
Summarizing and note taking.
Reinforcing effort and providing recognition.
Homework and practice.
Nonlinguistic representations.
Cooperative learning.
Setting objectives and providing feedback.
Generating and testing hypotheses.
Questions, cues, and advance organizers.
To plan with the intent of systematically using the strategies presented in this book, teachers might think about unit planning as involving the following three phases:
At the beginning of a unit, include strategies for setting learning goals.
During a unit, include strategies
– for monitoring progress toward learning goals.
– for introducing new knowledge.
– for practicing, reviewing, and applying knowledge.
At the end of a unit, include strategies for helping students determine how well they have achieved their goals.

In this chapter, we have provided an extended example of unit planning following this model in the context of a hypothetical unit on weather.

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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