Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

13
AFTERWORD
In the first chapter of this book, we began with a [call to arms,] so to speak. We asserted that the field of education is at a turning point in its history—a point at which schooling and teaching are beginning to become more of a science than an art. Accomplishing this transformation will require at least three major efforts.First, the research on instruction and schooling must be synthesized and made readily available to educators. This book is intended as a small but important step to make research understandable and useful. No doubt other similar resources will soon be available to educators.Second, schools and school districts must provide high-quality staff development relative to effective practices identified by the research. That is, simply presenting teachers with instructional techniques that are backed by the research is insufficient to effect change. Indeed, research has consistently shown that changing the practice of schooling requires far more than simply presenting educators with new strategies in an [inservice workshop] (see Fullan, 1993; Guskey, 2000; Joyce & Showers, 1980). Some of the elements we believe are necessary for change to occur in day-to-day classroom practice are described here. It should come as no surprise that these elements are drawn directly from the research presented in this book:
Adequate modeling and practice. Learning a complex skill mandates that a person properly demonstrate the skill, with attention to the many variations in implementation the skill may require. In addition, acquiring a complex skill demands extensive practice during which time one learns the skill to a level at which it can be executed with little conscious thought. We discussed these facts in depth in Chapters 5

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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