Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

Index
Note: Citations to figures are followed by f.
ability levels, organizing groups, 87–88
accuracy, charting, 69–70
achievement, 52–53
chart, 53f
keeping track, 52–53
percentile gain, 2
and planning, 155
rubrics, 52f
advance organizers
classroom practice, 118–120
expository, 118–119
focus, 118
graphic, 119–120, 120f
higher and lower level, 118
narrative, 119
research and theory, 117–118
research results, 117f
skimming, 119
types, 118
usefulness, 118
algorithms, 137
analogies, 13, 26
graphic organizers, 28f
identifying similarities and differences, 16, 17f
student-directed, 27–28
teacher-directed, 26–27
analytic skills, 116f
Anderson, John, 88
Anderson, Valerie, 30
application, knowledge, 151–153, 152f
argumentation frame, 39f
assessments, audiotape, 154
Ausubel, David, 117
automaticity, 140
beliefs, 50–51 bell curve, 5f, 6f
Bill of Rights, teacher-prepared notes, 45f
cause/effect
principles, 134f
sequences, 130f
celebration, 157. See also recognition
change, commitment to, 157–158
clarifying, reciprocal teaching, 43f
classifying
graphic organizers, 21–23, 21f, 22f
identifying similarities and differences, 16, 17f, 20–23
student-directed tasks, 20
teacher-directed tasks, 20
classroom practice
advance organizers, 118–120
comparing, 17–20, 19f
cooperative learning, 89–91
cues and questions, 114–117
details, 132–133
effort, reinforcing, 51–53
feedback, 99–102
goal setting, 95–96
homework, 64–66
hypotheses, generating and testing, 106–110
ideas, organizing, 135–137
nonlinguistic representations, 75–83
note taking, 45–48
practice, 69–71
processes, 143–145
recognition, providing, 58–59
similarities and differences, 17–28 skills, 140–141 summarizing, 32–34, 33f
Cognitively Guided Instruction (CGI), 138
Cohen, Jacob, 6
Coleman, James, 1–2
Coleman report (Equality of Educational Opportunity), 1–2
combination technique, student notes, 48f
comparing
classroom practice, 17–20, 19f
graphic organizers, 18–20, 18f
identifying similarities and
differences, 16, 17f
student-directed tasks, 18
teacher-directed tasks, 17
concept patterns, 77–78. See also pattern organizers
organizer, 78f
voluntary mediation, 80f
context, vocabulary, 125–126, 125f
contracts, 95–96
conversation frame, 4142, 41f
cooperative groups, 88
cooperative learning, 7f, 84–91
application, 88–89
classroom practice, 89–91
combining with other classroom
structures, 91
research and theory, 85–89
research results, 86f
Cooperative Learning Center, University of Minnesota, 86

-174-

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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