The School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania and an American Fellowship from the American Association of University Women provided the time and money to make work on this project possible. April Fletcher and Joanna Holzman did impeccable research: They have my gratitude and admiration. Joanna also wrote most of the biographies of the authors that appear at the end of this volume. Mary Poovey has been a wonderful editor, interlocutor, and friend throughout. Nancy Bentley's friendship and advice were indispensable during the researching of this book. I wish to thank Gina Dent, Rob Held, Carolyn Lesjak, Trish Loughran, Talia Schaffer, Gauri Viswanathan, Jamie Wasserman, Caroline Weber, and Patricia White for their support and friendship. Jenna Mormelo was a pillar of strength. Debra Roth inspires all the work I do.
This book is dedicated to my students. Rachel Buurma has been influenc