Factory Production in Nineteenth-Century Britain

By Elaine Freedgood | Go to book overview

CHAPTER FOUR
THEORY

ADAM SMITH


OF THE DIVISION OF LABOUR

Division of labour
is the great cause
of its increased
powers,

as may be better
understood from a
particular example,

The greatest improvement in the productive powers of labour, and the greater part of the skill, dexterity, and judgment with which it is any where directed, or applied, seem to have been the effects of the division of labour.

The effects of the division of labour, in the general business of society, will be more easily understood, by considering in what manner it operates in some particular manufactures. It is commonly supposed to be carried furthest in some very trifling ones; not perhaps that it really is carried further in them than in others of more importance: but in those trifling manufactures which are destined to supply the small wants of but a small number of people, the whole number of workmen must necessarily be small; and those employed in every different branch of the work can often be collected into the same workhouse, and placed at once under the view of the spectator. In those great manufactures, on the contrary, which are destined to supply the great wants of the great body of the people, every different branch of the work employs so great a number of workmen, that it is impossible to collect them all into the same workhouse. We can seldom see more, at one time, than those employed in one single branch. Though in such manufactures, therefore, the work may really be divided into a much greater number of parts, than in those of a more trifling na

From An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. London: W. Strahan and
T. Cadell, 1776.

-85-

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