Autism, Brain, and Environment

By Richard Lathe | Go to book overview
List of figures and tables
Figure 2.1Pervasive developmental disorders21
Figure 3.1An example of genome-wide screening for ASD genes42
Figure 4.1Birth year prevalence rates (1970 to 1997) for the 2002 population of persons with autism50
Figure 4.2Olmsted County ASD prevalences in two different timeframes53
Figure 4.3Rates of [autism] and all disabilities, according to age54
Figure 4.4Frequency of Fragile X in subjects diagnosed with ASD plotted against date of publication57
Figure 5.1Major subregions of the human brain (simplified)62
Figure 5.2Hippocampus and amygdala viewed from different directions62
Figure 5.3Hippocampal substructure63
Figure 5.4Reduced dentate cross-sectional area in ASD67
Figure 6.1Little and often behavior in hippocampal-lesioned animals80
Figure 7.1Excess coproporphyrin (a marker of heavy metal toxicity) in urines of children with autistic disorder92
Figure 7.2Deficient mobilization of mercury in ASD95
Figure 7.3Neuronal death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following trimethyltin (Me3Sn) administration98
Figure 8.1Sequential limbic control of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and downstream target organs119
Figure 8.2Physiological parameters in ASD124
Figure 8.3Sulfur pathways129
Figure 8.4The tryptophan–serotonin pathway131
Figure 8.5Production of ACTH and β-endorphin by cleavage of POMC in the pituitary136
Figure 8.6Excess secretion of a stress steroid (cortisol) in children with autism137
Figure 8.7Hormone/cytokine parameters in ASD138
Figure 8.8The sexually dimorphic 2:4 digit ratio142
Figure 8.9Pathway of heme synthesis149
Figure 9.1Elevated cytokine expression in the ASD brain157
Figure 9.2Brain IL-induction in response to peripheral challenge; abolition by vagotomy and receptor localization161
Figure 9.3Serotonin pathways impacting on the brain165
Figure 9.4Heme pathway inhibition and the brain170
Figure 9.5Inhibition of methionine pathways by heavy metal interference and heme deficiency173
Figure 9.6BrainU+ 2013gut feedback loop176
Figure 9.7Environment, physiological feedback cascades, and the limbic brain: pathways179
Table 2.1DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for pervasive developmental disorders23
Table 2.2Other disorders (ICD-10) potentially overlapping with ASD27
Table 6.1Similarities and parallels between autistic disorders and functional lesions of the hippocampus with adjoining amygdala82
Table 7.1Behavioral and physiological consequences of hippocampal and wider brain damage induced by trimethyltin (TMT) exposure in rats and mice100
Table 8.1GI tract abnormalities in ASD122

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