Autism, Brain, and Environment

By Richard Lathe | Go to book overview

Abbreviations and Glossary

ABA applied behavioral analysis

ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone; a pituitary hormone that acts on the adrenal to stimulate hormone release

ADD attention deficit disorder

ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADI-R autism diagnostic interview revised

ADOS-G autism diagnostic observation schedule generic

AGRE Autism Genetic Resource Exchange

ALAD δ-ALA dehydratase; enzyme of the heme synthesis pathway

allele a functional gene variant, ascribed to one or more mutations

Ammon's horn alternative name for the hippocampus

amygdala nut-shaped extension of the hippocampus (Latin, almond), regarded as a separate organ within the limbic system but with overlapping functionality

androgen a steroid hormone with masculinizing effects; includes testosterone and related hormones

antigen a novel structure or molecule that is recognized by the immune system

AR androgen receptor; responds to androgens including the sex steroid testosterone

ASD autism (or autistic) spectrum disorder; generally equates to the group of pervasive developmental disorders as defined by international criteria; these include autistic disorder, PDD not otherwise specified, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger disorder, and Rett disorder

Asperger disorder/syndrome a type of high-functioning autism where speech and intelligence are preserved but other social deficits may be apparent

autism spectrum see ASD

autistic disorder autism proper; a subcategory of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

axon the long communicating fiber (or fibers) of a neuron

B12 vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin; cofactor in several enzyme reactions

β-E beta-endorphin; one of the endogenous opioids produced by the pituitary

benzodiazepine one of a group of structurally related drugs, including diazepam, with anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant activity

BH4 tetrahydrobiopterin; a cofactor in several enzyme reactions

bisphenol A an estrogenic endocrine disruptor; 4, 4'-dihydroxy-2, 2-diphenylpropane

brainstem the lower part of the brain extending toward the spinal cord

broader phenotype refers to the extended, often milder, phenotype sometimes seen in close relatives of subjects with autism spectrum disorders

CA regions subregions of the cornu ammonis (Ammon's horn), the hippocampus; as in CA1, CA2, CA3

CARS Childhood Autism Rating Scale

catecholamines the group of neurotransmitters including adrenalin (epinephrine), nor-adrenalin (nor-epinephrine), and dopamine

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