|1979–89||During the armed conflict (1979–89), many archives were destroyed.|
|1982||In March 1982 Ralph Pinder-Wilson (?1919–), a British archeologist and head of the British Institute for Afghan Studies, Kabul, was detained and charged with smuggling archeological finds out of Afghanistan and with helping Afghan nationals to emigrate. In addition he was accused of criticizing the government and spreading propaganda against it. Between March and July, he was first sentenced to death, then given ten years' imprisonment, and, finally, granted pardon. In July he was released.|
|1982–87||In April or May 1982, Hasan Kakar (1932–), leading Marxist historian and head of the Kabul University history department, was arrested, together with other intellectuals, by the Khad (state security police), and beaten. He was held in solitary confinement for over a year and allowed only one visit from his family. Charged with distributing "antistate literature", he was tried in camera for "counterrevolutionary offenses" and possibly for "founding an illegal association" and sentenced to eight years' imprisonment in July 1983. He had participated in a discussion group at Kabul University, founded early in 1982, which tried to suggest peaceful solutions to the armed conflict and protested the arbitrary arrest of a number of teachers and students. Kakar had also refused to affiliate with the ruling People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) and protected persecuted PDPA members of the Parcham faction in his house. During the trial he pointed out that his actions had not been unconstitutional. He was denied access to a lawyer during his de-|
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Publication information: Book title: Censorship of Historical Thought: A World Guide, 1945-2000. Contributors: Antoon De Baets - Author. Publisher: Greenwood. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 2002. Page number: 39.
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