|1947–||A law required that all history teachers in primary and secondary schools be Haitian citizens. The law still existed in the 1990s.|
|1957–71||Under the government of President François Duvalier (1957–71), some left-wing history teachers were reportedly killed; others were purged or exiled. Those who stayed in Haiti rarely published. Historian Hénock Trouillot had privileged access to several archives.|
|1960–||In 1960 Leslie Manigat (1930–), a historian, political scientist, and foreign ministry official, was accused of rebellion against Duvalier. He was deemed responsible for a wave of student unrest and sentenced to two months' imprisonment. In 1963 he broke with Duvalier and spent the next twenty-three years in exile, first in the Argentinian embassy, then in Washington, New York, Paris (where he completed his doctoral thesis on history), Trinidad and Tobago, and finally Caracas. There he was a professor of political science, founded the political party Rassemblement des Démocrates Nationaux Progressistes d'Haïti and established an anti-Duvalierist "government-inexile" between 1978 and 1985. After Duvalier's 1986 overthrow, he came back to Haiti. In November 1987 his house was fired on. On 17 January 1988, he became the first civilian president in more than thirty years, with 50 percent of the votes in controversial elections. Other important candidates had withdrawn after earlier elections had been called off due to violence. On 20 June Manigat was removed by General Henri Namphy after a conflict with the army leadership. He then went into exile again in the Dominican Republic and the United States. In his numerous writings about Haitian, Caribbean,|
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Censorship of Historical Thought: A World Guide, 1945-2000. Contributors: Antoon De Baets - Author. Publisher: Greenwood. Place of publication: Westport, CT. Publication year: 2002. Page number: 254.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.