Man has free choice. Or otherwise counsels, exhortations, com-
mands, prohibitions, rewards and punishments would be in vain.
—THOMAS AQUINAS, Summa Theologiae
The history of the world is none other than the progress of the
consciousness of freedom.
—G.W.F. HEGEL, Philosophy of History
Our first act of freedom, if we are free, ought in all inward pro-
priety to be to affirm that we are free.
—Willliam James, [The Dilemma of Determinism,] in
Man is condemned to be free. Condemned, because he did not
create himself, yet is nevertheless at liberty, and from the moment
he is thrown into this world he is responsible for everything he
—JEAN-PAUL SARTRE, Existentialism.