Psychology for Musicians: Understanding and Acquiring the Skills

By Andreas C. Lehmann; John A. Sloboda et al. | Go to book overview
Save to active project

6
Reading or Listening
and Remembering

In this chapter, we discuss sight-reading, playing by ear, and recalling of memorized performance, because all three skills rely on our ability to store and retrieve information from memory, albeit in different ways. In classical music learning, reading music plays a role for sight-reading and provides a basis for acquiring new repertoire that will be performed from memory later. In jazz or popular music genres, as well as in most non-Western cultures, music is often handed down in oral traditions that by definition rely exclusively on memory.

Playing by ear and sight-reading both occur in the learning of a piece, whereas performance from memory follows later. Compared with sight-reading, playing from memory conjures for the listener the illusion that the performer owns the piece. Yet the demands with regard to perfection differ in many respects. When sight-reading, the musician can get away with some mistakes and a rather sketchy interpretation, whereas a memorized performance usually is note-perfect and conveys a unique interpretation. In sight-reading, which often takes place in the context of accompanying, the specific preparation for the performance is minimal, if not absent. Thus sight-reading happens “online,” a fact that the performer has to cope with by using appropriate strategies. In contrast, memorized performances are extensively rehearsed “offline,” allowing the performer more leisure to optimize the performance.

In Western music history, notation emerged with the advent of polyphony and the need for different singers or musicians to coordinate (see Sadie, 2001, “Notation”). Useful graphical representations of music have existed since antiquity and functioned as more or less precise memory cues. A common example may be tabulatures, that is, graphical notation that captures movements or hand positions and that were used for lute, guitar, or Chinese zither music. Our current music notation developed in the sixteenth century and was also used to

-107-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Psychology for Musicians: Understanding and Acquiring the Skills
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen
/ 268

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.