Utterances, Sentences, Clauses, and Phrases
Producing sounds is one of the things that human beings' mouths can do. The sounds that our mouths emit are known as utterances. An utterance either makes sense or else makes no sense. Here are some examples of both kinds of utterance. Examples (1) and (2) make no sense, while examples (3) and (4) make perfect sense.
 qrktslyrxf gfb fkl
 How are you today?
When written down, an utterance that makes sense either is a sentence or is not a sentence. A sentence is any sense-making script that begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, with three dots, with a question mark or with an exclamation mark. Speech reduced to writing that does not begin and end that way is not a sentence. What follows are examples of both types:
 No way!
 Oh really?
 Now John…
 The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy sleeping dog.
 [… so then I… but… and she… well… ]
 [… uh… ]
 [… well I… ]
 [… er, um… ]
Most of the time we speak and write in sentences. Utterances that do not count as sentences will typically occur when people cannot think of what to say—and thus don't really get started saying it—try to interrupt what someone else is saying but do not succeed in breaking through, or interrupt themselves because they have lost their train of thought.
Many sentences contain at least one clause. A clause is a sentence containing a subject and a predicate. Any sentence lacking a subject and a predicate is