The Loss of Sadness: How Psychiatry Transformed Normal Sorrow into Depressive Disorder

By Allan V. Horwitz; Jerome C. Wakefield | Go to book overview

Depression in the Twentieth Century

Until the end of the nineteenth century, psychiatry generally used the relationship of symptoms to their provoking causes as an essential part of definitions of melancholic disorder. Although some kinds of cases, such as psychotic depressions, almost always displayed symptoms that implied disorder, diagnosticians understood that they had to consider context, because depressive disorder could often be symptomatically indistinguishable from profound normal sadness. In the late 1800s, the traditional contextual approach to diagnosis of depressive disorder began to divide into two distinct schools. On one side, Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the psychological etiology of all mental disorders, including depression, and their continuity with normal functioning. Adherents of this school studied and interpreted the patient+U0027s reported thoughts to surmise the existence of underlying unconscious pathogenic meanings and wishes. On the other side, Emil Kraepelin applied a classical medical model that examined the symptoms, course, and prognosis of depression and other disorders to define distinct physical pathologies. Kraepelin+U0027s approach inspired a cadre of researchers to translate it into a research program that often used statistical techniques to infer discrete disorders from manifest symptoms.

Many psychiatrists viewed the publication of the DSM-III in 1980 as finally resolving the struggle between the Freudian and Kraepelinian schools for the domination of psychiatric nosology largely in favor of Kraepelin+U0027s approach.1 We will see, however, that such a judgment is overly simplistic in many ways. Specifically with respect to depressive disorder, the DSM-III criteria in fact represented a rejection of key assumptions underlying both Freud+U0027s and Kraepelin+U0027s systems and an af rmation of a quite different research tradition that ignored the prior emphasis on contextual criteria.

-72-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Loss of Sadness: How Psychiatry Transformed Normal Sorrow into Depressive Disorder
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The Loss of Sadness - A Textbook iii
  • Foreword vii
  • Preface xi
  • Contents xv
  • 1: The Concept of Depression 3
  • 2: The Anatomy of Normal Sadness 27
  • 3: Sadness with and Without Cause 53
  • 4: Depression in the Twentieth Century 72
  • 5: Depression in the Dsm-Iv 104
  • 6: Importing Pathology into the Community 123
  • 7: The Surveillance of Sadness 144
  • 8: The Dsm and Biological Research About Depression 165
  • 9: The Rise of Antidepressant Drug Treatments 179
  • 10: The Failure of the Social Sciences to Distinguish Sadness from Depressive Disorder 194
  • 11: Conclusion 212
  • Notes - Notes 227
  • Reference 249
  • Index 281
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 287

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.