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Migration Control in the North Atlantic World: The Evolution of State Practices in Europe and the United States from the French Revolution to the Inter-War Period

By Andreas Fahrmeir; Olivier Faron et al. | Go to book overview

Chapter 10
Empowerment and Control
Conflicting Central and Regional
Interests in Migration Within the
Habsburg Monarchy

Andrea Komlosy

At the end of the eighteenth century, the Habsburg Monarchy was characterized by strong regional disparities. Before the State Constitution was passed in 1867, emigration was severely restricted by various laws. Immigration was limited to master craftsmen and journeymen who were travelling within the networks of their professional guilds, to economic elites (entrepreneurs, merchants, skilled labourers) who were encouraged by special incentives, and refugees, provided they were not considered a threat to state security. Many investors, engineers and skilled labourers from Western Europe came from countries that had at one time belonged to the monarchy, e. g. the southern Netherlands, Swabia etc. Even after the liberalization of emigration, internal migration was far more important than in- and out-migration across state-boundaries. In 1910, 62 percent of the Cisleithanians (inhabitants of the Österreichische Reichshälfte, i. e. the part of the Dual Monarchy governed from Vienna) were living within the boundaries of their community of birth. 31 percent were considered internal migrants who had crossed boundaries of districts (Bezirke) or lands (Länder). The share of emigrants was 6.5 percent or 1,845.000 persons, thus clearly exceeding the number of immigrants from abroad (632,000), almost 80 percent of whom were citizens of the Hungarian part of the monarchy (Transleithania was the part of the Dual

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