Classical Hymn in the Renaissance
Whether later poets choose to follow Marullo's lead or to take their own direction, whether they turn, as Marullo had so often, to ancient poets for their inspiration or simply imitate the classicism of their contemporaries and predecessors, they had to acknowledge Marullo as the poet who had reinvented the genre of classical hymn for the Renaissance. Certain hymns of Marullo exert more influence than others. Though few poets write hymns to Jupiter, as Marullo had, his hymns to this Graeco-Roman father of the gods influence later hymns to the Christian God. Marullo's odes to Apollo and Bacchus, however, and to Venus and to Diana profoundly affect the hymns to those gods that proliferate in the century following. Even the popular hymns to Aurora or Dawn reveal a debt to Marullo's Hymn to the Sun. Marullo's Pan retains his status, particularly in pastoral hymn, and Venus' son Amor or Cupid is addressed in hymn-ode as well as in love poetry. Marullo's Pallas more often reappears lightly veiled in hymns to the Virgin or in hymns to the abstract goddesses of Wisdom. Hymns to abstract deities in the style of Marullo's Hymn to Eternity become popular, with the goddesses Fortune and Hope and Health and Justice assuming the status of semi-classical, semi-Christian deities.1 In some poets, it is possi
1 Pontano, Navagero, Flaminio, among others, compose hymns to abstract deities. Among the most unusual, however, are a series of seven hymns addressed to the virtues, Temperance, Strength, Justice, Prudence, Faith, Hope, Charity, included in the Rime Spirituali (Vinegia, 1575) of Gabriel Fiamma (1533–85). Fiamma attempts to combine the hymn to the classical abstract deity with the Christian philosophical poem. Fiamma's allegorical Virtues are sometimes pagan goddesses, daughters of Jove; sometimes spiritual essences, friends to truth; sometimes even Christian saints, descended from the throne of God. Prudentia is cele
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Publication information: Book title: Pindar and the Renaissance Hymn-Ode, 1450-1700. Contributors: Stella P. Revard - Author. Publisher: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Place of publication: Tempe, AZ. Publication year: 2001. Page number: 181.
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