MAQQEF, DAGESH, VOWEL ALTERATIONS
|▸ In (“king of Israel” [1Sa 29:3]) a maqqef links two nouns, forming a genitival phrase.1|
|▸ In (“upon the earth” [Ge 1:11]) a maqqef links a preposition ( = “upon”) and a noun ( = “the earth”), forming a prepositional phrase.|
|▸ In (“and it was morning” [Ge 1:5]) a maqqef links a verb ( = “and it was”) and a predicate noun = “morning”), forming a verb clause.|
|▸ = bēn (“son”) and = ʾaḇ/rā/hām (“Abraham”) each have a major accent when they stand alone. However, when linked by a maqqef in the phrase = Ben-ʾaḇ/rā/hām2 (“son of Abraham” [Ge 25:12]), they are treated as if they are one word. Consequently, only the last syllable of receives a major accent, and loses its accent. Since has become a closed, unaccented syllable, its vowel shortens from the long vowel sere () to the short vowel segol ().|
|▸ When the words = k014D;l (“all”) and = hā/ʿām (“the people”) are linked by a maqqef in the phrase = kol-hā/ʿām (“all of the people”|
1 See Lesson 7A.1b.
2 A hyphen in transliteration represents a maqqef.