Knowledge Creation, Diffusion, and Use in Innovation Networks and Knowledge Clusters: A Comparative Systems Approach across the United States, Europe, and Asia

By Elias G. Carayannis; David F. J. Campbell | Go to book overview

CONCLUSION
Key Insights and Lessons Learned for
Policy and Practice

ELIAS G. CARAYANNIS
DAVID F. J. CAMPBELL

This book has been a journey of insight and discovery in the emerging global “knowledge village.” Perspectives from and about different parts of the world and diverse human, socioeconomic, technological, and cultural contexts are presented and interwoven to produce an emerging new worldview on how specialized knowledge that is embedded in a particular sociotechnical context can serve as the unit of reference for stocks and flows of a hybrid, public/private, tacit/codified, tangible/virtual good that represents the building block of the knowledge economy, society, and polity.

Knowledge does matter, but the question is when, how, and why. Moreover, with the advancement of economies and societies, knowledge matters even more and in ways that are not always predictable or even controllable (e.g., see the concepts of strategic knowledge serendipity and knowledge arbitrage in Carayannis and Juneau, 2003). The successful performance of the developed and the developing economies, societies, and democracies increasingly depends on knowledge. One branch of knowledge develops along R&D (research and experimental development), S&T (science and technology), and innovation.1 The concept of the multilevel systems of innovation encompasses a national innovation system as gradually converting to a global embeddedness, social-technical, cultural, economic, and political. From the proposition of a coevolution of the innovation and political systems (Kuhlmann, 2001, pp. 960–961), we can draw the implication that as long as national political systems exist, there are also national systems of innovation. However, just as national political systems are challenged

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