NUCLEAR NON- PROLIFERATION
The atomic bombs dropped by the United States on
Japan in 1945 ended World War II, but the nuclear genie
could not be kept in the bottle. The Soviet Union deto-
nated its first atomic bomb on August 29, 1949. The U.S.
launched a crash program to develop hydrogen bombs with
its first successful test at Eniwetok-Atoll in 1951. Within nine
months, the Soviet Union exploded its own first H-bomb.
Britain followed in 1952.
Seeing no advantage—and huge danger—in an escalat-
ing nuclear arms race, President Eisenhower delivered his
historic “Atoms for Peace” speech at the U.N. in
December, 1953. This led to the establishment of the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) with head-
quarters in Vienna to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear
energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. Rapid
progress was made in the use of nuclear power to generate
electricity but the IAEA was unable to halt efforts to use
nuclear science for military purposes. France exploded its
first A-bomb in 1960. China began work on its nuclear
weapons. These and the introduction of intercontinental
ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads, led the U.S.,
Britain and Soviet Union to sign the Nuclear Test Ban
Treaty and to negotiate the Nuclear Non- Proliferation
Treaty (NPT).RENOUNCING NUCLEAR WEAPONS
The NPT has three pillars: disarmament, non-prolifera-
tion and the right to use nuclear technology for peaceful
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Publication information: Book title: Turbulent Iran: Recollections, Revelations and a Proposal for Peace. Contributors: Eldon Griffiths - Author. Publisher: Seven Locks. Place of publication: Santa Ana, CA. Publication year: 2006. Page number: 220.
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