The Rights of God: Islam, Human Rights, and Comparative Ethics

By Irene Oh | Go to book overview

GLOSSARY OF FOREIGN
WORDS AND PHRASES
ahl al-kitabPeople of the Book, typically Jews and Christians, referring to believers whose divine scripture testifies to the same Abrahamic God; may be extended to believers of other religious traditions.
‘aqlRationality or reason used to determine Islamic law.
Ash‘ariTenth- to twelfth-century Sunni legal school that emphasized the primacy of divine revelation over human reason in determining morality.
bay’ahLiterally, the clasping of hands; oath of loyalty taken by electors to caliph.
dhimmisProtected status given typically to People of the Book who lived under Muslim rule; they were allowed to continue their religious beliefs and practices in exchange for payment of a special tax.
hadithRecord of the teachings and practices of Muhammad.
hajjPilgrimage to Mecca; one of the five pillars of Islam.
hidayaDivine spark to provide moral guidance to humans.
ijmaIn Islamic jurisprudence, the consensus of legal scholars.
ijtihadIn Islamic jurisprudence, innovative or independent legal interpretation achieved through intellectual and religious struggle; shares the same root as “jihad.”
imamahDivinely chosen leadership of the Muslim community.
ismahDivinely inspired intellectual and emotional virtue found in prophets and imams.
jahiliyyahThe period before Muhammad’s revelation characterized by ignorance of the monotheistic nature of God.
jihadLiterally, struggle; refers both to outward struggles to defend Islam and to inner struggles of personal will.
khilalfaRepresentation of God’s will on earth by humans.

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