Absolutism, rejection of, 71–72
Accountability: constructivist rejection of, 74; six broad types of, 19
Accountability/payment by results approach (#4), 18–20, 89; in questions/ methods approaches comparison tables, 43–55
Accreditation/certification approach (#18), 4, 61–62; in improvement/accountability evaluation approaches comparison tables, 64–68
Accuracy ratings of strongest program evaluation approaches (table), 90
Action-research. See Client-centered studies (#19)
Active-reactive-adaptive methodology. See Utilization-focused approach (#22)
Advance organizers (comparison tables): in improvement/accountability evaluation approaches, 64; in questions/methods approaches, 43; in social agenda/ advocacy approaches, 81. See also names of specific approaches
Advance organizers, definition of, 10
Advisory panels, stakeholder, 57
Advocacy, social. See Social agenda and advocacy approaches
Affirmative action factor, 62
Agencies, education accreditation, 61
Aguaro, R., 30
Alkin, M.C., 58, 78
Almaguer, T.O., 23
Alternative program evaluation approaches: importance of studying, 9–10; pending questions on, 2–5; previous classifications of, 10; professional awareness of, 91; writings on, 9
Ambiguous findings, receptivity to, 70
American Educational Research Association, 2
Annual testing. See Outcome evaluation as value-added assessment (#6)
Audiences, evaluation approach. See names of specific approaches
Baker, E.L., 25 Bandura, A., 37
Bayless, D., 30
Becker, M.H., 37
Benefit-cost analysis approach (#10), 31–33; in questions/methods approaches comparison tables, 43–55
Best approaches for 21st century evaluations, 7; analysis and judgments of, 1, 11–12; comments on ratings, 4, 12, 80, 89; ratings table, 90
Bhola, H.S., 72–73
Bias: in decision/accountability studies (#16), 58; in public relations-inspired studies (#1), 13–15, 89; and social agenda/advocacy approaches, 62–63
Bickman, L., 38
Bloom, B.S., 17
Bock, R.D., 27
Boruch, R.F., 27
Bridgman, P., 17
Campbell, D.T., 26
Carlson, D., 33
Case study evaluations (#12), 34–36; best approaches rating, 89, 90; in questions/methods approaches comparison tables, 43–55
Case study examples: charter schools evaluation, 22; federally-mandated field experiment (ESAA), 28–29
Categories of evaluation programs, the four: comparison table groups for three of, 43–55, 64–68, 81–88, 90; discussion of category assignments within, 34, 40, 76–77; improvement and accountability evaluation approaches, 42–62, 64–68, 90, 91; the nine best approaches from, 7, 11–12, 80, 89, 90; pseudoevaluations, 13–16, 89; questions and methods evaluation approaches, 16–42, 43–55, 90, 91; social agenda and advocacy approaches, 62–63, 69–80, 81–88, 90, 91; ten descriptors characterizing each of, 11
Category systems for evaluation approaches, previous, 10
Caveats on assessment of approaches, 12
Certification approach. See Accreditation/certification approach (#18)


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