Human rights and armed conflict
C. Stone, Should Trees Have Standing? Towards Legal Rights for Natural Objects (1974); M. Uibopuu, ‘The Internationally Guaranteed Right of an Individual to a Clean Environment’, 1 Comparative Law Yearbook 101 (1977); W. Gormley, Human Rights and the Environment: The Need for International Co-operation (1976); J. Bryden, ‘Environmental Rights in Theory and Practice’, 62 Minnesota Law Review 163 (1978); P. Kromarek (ed.), Environnement et droits de l’homme (1987); W. Gormley, ‘The Legal Obligation of the International Community to Guarantee a Pure and Decent Environment: The Expansion of Human Rights Norms’, 3 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 85 (1991); G. Alfredsson and A. Ovsiouk, ‘Human Rights and the Environment’, 60 Nordic Journal of International Law 19 (1991); I. Hodkova, ‘Is There a Right to a Healthy Environment in the International Legal Order?’, 7 Connecticut Journal of International Law 65 (1991); D. Shelton, ‘Human Rights, Environmental Rights, and the Right to the Environment’, 28 Stanford Journal of International Law 103 (1991); D. Shelton, ‘What Happened in Rio to Human Rights?’, 3 Yearbook of International Environmental Law 75 (1992); Human Rights Watch and National Resources Defense Council, Defending the Earth: Abuses of Human Rights and the Environment (1992); Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund, Human Rights and the Environment: The Legal Basis for a Human Right to the Environment (1992); A. Trindade (ed.), Human Rights, Sustainable Development and the Environment (1992); R. Desgagné, ‘Integrating Environmental Values into the European Convention on Human Rights’, 89 AJIL 263 (1995); A. Boyle and M. Anderson (eds.), Human Rights Approaches to Environmental Protection (1996); Earthjustice Legal Defense Fund, Human Rights and the Environment (2001).
As it develops, international environmental law raises many issues already familiar to international human rights lawyers. In the environmental context, questions related to the existence and application of minimum international standards and the proper role of individuals and other non-governmental