First Available Cell: Desegregation of the Texas Prison System

By Chad R. Trulson; James W. Marquart | Go to book overview

Notes

Chapter 1

1. See http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil, the National Museum of the Air Force, for more information on Iven Kincheloe.

2. Elvis said it himself in 1956: “The colored folks been singing it and playing it just like I’m doing now, man, for more years than I know. I got it from them. Down in Tupelo, Mississippi, I used to hear old Arthur Crudup bang his box the way I do now, and I said if I ever got to the place where I could feel all old Arthur felt, I’d be a music man like nobody ever saw.” See Farley, C. J. (2004, July 6). “Elvis Rocks. But He’s Not the First.” Time Magazine.

3. See Bertrand, M. J. (2000). Race, Rock, and Elvis. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

4. Ladino, R. (1996). Desegregating Texas Schools: Eisenhower, Shivers, and the Crisis at Mansfield High. Austin: University of Texas Press: 6.

5. Ibid.

6. Jackson v. Rawdon, United States District Court, Northern District, Texas, August 27, 1956, Civ. No. 3152.

7. Ladino, R., Desegregating Texas Schools, 91–92.

8. Ibid., 138–143.

9. See Sample, A. (1984). Racehoss: Big Emma’s Boy. New York: Ballantine Books: 178–180.

10. In the TDC of the 1950s, inmates working in the field were required to weigh their sacks of cotton to meet quotas. Inmates who did not meet their quotas at “weigh up” faced disciplinary punishments for being “lazy” or otherwise insubordinate, punishments which could have included placement in solitary confinement among other coercive disciplinary sanctions.

11. Inmate has recently been replaced with the word “offender” in today’s correctional institutions. Such changes generally paralleled the name changes that have come to the old prison farms. Prisons in Texas have evolved from farms (convicts), to units (inmates), to the newly labeled correctional institutions (offenders).

12. See Park, R., Burgess, E., & McKenzie, R. (1925). The City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

-225-

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First Available Cell: Desegregation of the Texas Prison System
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Acknowledgments xii
  • Introduction xiv
  • From Segregation to Desegregation in Texas Prisons- A Timeline xvi
  • Part I - The outside 1
  • Chapter 1 - Broken Barriers 3
  • Chapter 2 - An Institutional Fault Line 15
  • Chapter 3 - 18,000 Days 42
  • Part II - The Inside 59
  • Chapter 4 - The Color Line Persists 61
  • Chapter 5 - Cracks in the Color Line 89
  • Chapter 6 - Full Assault on the Color Line 111
  • Chapter 7 - The Color Line Breaks 134
  • Chapter 8 - 7,000 Days Later 163
  • Chapter 9 - Life in the First Available Cell 176
  • Part III - A Colorless Society? 201
  • Chapter 10 - The Most Unlikely Place 203
  • Notes 225
  • Select Bibliography 265
  • Index 269
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