The Politics of Precaution: Regulating Health, Safety, and Environmental Risks in Europe and the United States

By David Vogel | Go to book overview

CHAPTER TWO
Explaining Regulatory Policy Divergence

A POLICY PUZZLE

The extent to which transatlantic regulatory policy divergence has increased during the last two decades presents a puzzle. When compared to the rest of the world, Europe and the United States have much in common. The United States and the fifteen member states of the EU (as of 2003) are affluent democracies with sophisticated public bureaucracies, substantial scientific capacities, and strong civic cultures. Their regulatory officials have access to much of the same scientific expertise and there is extensive communication among policy makers, scientists, business managers, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), and citizens. Thanks to the spread of global media, many Americans and Europeans are well informed of policy developments on the other side of the Atlantic.

Moreover, their economies have become increasingly interdependent. “The transatlantic trade and investment relationship has become a super highway.”1 Bilateral trade in goods between the EU and the United States totaled $563 billion in 2007; each is the other’s second most important trading partner. European investments in the United States total $1.5 trillion, and American firms have investments of approximately $1.7 trillion in the EU.2

The result is a staggering degree of interdependence between the two econo-
mies, not least because the fabled US and European multinationals are now so
thoroughly intertwined by mergers and cross-fertilization. Something close to
a quarter of all US-EU “trade” simply consists of transactions within firms with
investments on the other side of the Atlantic.3

Divergent risk regulations between the United States and the EU add to the costs of transatlantic commerce and also raise the costs of international trade as some countries adopt European standards and others, American ones. Improving regulatory cooperation and coordination has

1 Matthew Baldwin, John Peterson, and Bruce Stokes, “Trade and Economic Relations,” in Europe, America, Bush: Transatlantic Relations in the Twenty-First Century, ed. John Peterson and Mark Pollack (London: Routledge, 2003), 29.

2EU Focus, December 2010.

3 Quoted in Baldwin et al., “Trade and Economic Relations,” 31.

-22-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Politics of Precaution: Regulating Health, Safety, and Environmental Risks in Europe and the United States
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 317

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.